Teschovirus Encephalomyelitis disease: exploratory study in Haiti (Jean-Rodney Jacques Simon)

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Abstract

Outbreaks of severe Teschovirus encephalomyelitis in pigs began occurring in the Republic of Haiti in February 2009 and porcine teschovirus type 1 (PTV-1) was isolated from brain samples of sick animals.  A study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis that there are other disease agents circulating in the Haitian swine population in addition to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and PTV and that the immunosuppressive effect of these agents has facilitated the expression of PTV. 

The objective of the study was to determine the potential risk factors related with the presence of Teschovirus Encephalomyelitis in Haiti and viruses co-circulating.

A total of 109 serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of CSFV and antibodies to a variety of viral pathogens. Among these samples, the numbers of samples positive for antibodies to various disease agents were: PTV-1, 54 (49.5%); porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), 64 (58.7%); porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), 8 (7.3%), swine influenza virus (SIV) H3N2, 13 (11.9%), SIV H1N1, 24 (22.0%); and CSFV, 44 (40.4%). CSFV was isolated from 5 of these samples. 

Data from housing, biosecurity, feeding, vaccination status and more were collected. No significant difference has been observed in farms with PTV-1 and none PTV-1 farms.

Given the risk of introduction and spread of the disease within the Caribbean region, it is necessary to improve animal management and biosecurity (owner education, practices, etc.)

 

Authors

J.R. Jacques Simon1*, M. Petit-Sinturel2, M. Millien1, A. Delgado3, J. Shaw4, D. Pyburn5, M. Deng6, J. Pradel2, S. Metwally6, S. Swenson7, T. Lefrançois2

1 Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Ressources and Rural Development, Animal Health direction, Port au Prince, Haiti ;

2 Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche en Agronomie pour le Développement (CIRAD) Guadeloupe, UMR CMAEE;

3 IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica ;

4 USDA – APHIS – US Embassy, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic ;

5 USDA–APHIS–VS, Swine Health Programs, Des Moines, IA ; 6 USDA – APHIS – NVSL – FADDL, Greenport, NY ; 7 NVSL-DVL, Ames, IA * wodth@hotmail.com

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