Monograph

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definition: 

Infectious bronchitis is an infectious disease of viral origin that only affects chickens. It appears on the OIE list.

Situation in America: 

Infectious bronchitis is a cosmopolitan disease.

It is present in the Caribbean and although no specific study on most of the islands has been carried out, it is most likely present.

Susceptible species: 

Chickens are susceptible species.

Etiological agent: 

Infectious bronchitis is caused by an RNA enveloped virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family and the Coronavirus genus.

Methods of transmission
Transmission: 

Transmission primarily occurs through the airways via the nasal discharge of infected birds, as well as via the ingestion of contaminated excrement. Affected birds remain carriers of the virus until one month after the end of symptoms.

Method of contamination: 

Contaminated material remains a potential source of indirect transmission over long distances.

Symptoms: 

Incubation period: 36 to 48 hours

Symptoms

- In chicks: sudden appearance of a hoarse cough, sneezing, nasal discharge and lacrimation

Death in 60% of cases

- In adults: sudden appearance of a decline in egg laying, misshapen and poor quality eggs

Death in 2% of cases

Diagnostics
Laboratory diagnosis: 

- Detection of the pathogenic agent after isolation by inoculation of embryonic chicken eggs and identification using an ELISA test

- Detection of antibodies using an ELISA test

Prophylaxis: 

Sanitary

Adherence to standard hygiene and breeding rules (sufficient aeration, avoiding overcrowding, clean litter, etc.)


Medical

Live virus vaccine


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