Monograph

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definition: 

Anaplasmosis is an infectious, virulent, inoculable, non-contagious disease of bacterial origin that affects wild or domestic ruminants.

Its frequency and severity in tropical regions justify its inclusion on the OIE list and, for cattle, on the list of Notifiable Diseases.

Situation in America: 

Anaplasmosis is present worldwide, but is particularly well established in tropical and subtropical regions with an abundance of ticks and dipterous biting insects.

Within the Lesser Antilles, the rate of seropositive subjects is 31% to 82% depending in the island.

Bovine anaplasmosis is present throughout this region.

Susceptible species: 

Cattle, small ruminants and cervidae are the species receptive to bovine anaplasmosis.

Anaplasmosis caused by A.ovis affects sheep and goats, the latter being more sensitive.

Etiological agent: 

Anaplasmosis is caused by intraerythrocytic bacteria: rickettsia, transmitted by ticks and dipterous biting insects.

Bovine anaplasmosis is usually caused by Anaplasma marginale and sometimes by A.centrale.

Ovine and caprine anaplasmosis is caused by A.ovis.

Methods of transmission
Transmission: 

Anaplasmosis can be transmitted by ticks (Boophilus most commonly in Guadeloupe), dipterous biting insects (mosquitoes, horseflies) or sometimes by contaminated instruments.

Symptoms: 

extreme hyperthermia accompanied by intense anaemia, anorexia, inrumination, weakness, weight loss, tachypnea and tachycardia, and constipation.

Also possible is edema of the eyelids with lacrimation and nervous disorders (lack of motor coordination, paresis, aggressiveness).

Anemia progresses to jaundice.

Death in 3 to 4 days, or later in the case of subacute or chronic forms.

In small ruminants, the symptoms are less clear and in the majority of cases there is a slow return to a normal condition.

Diagnostics
Laboratory diagnosis: 

- Detection of the pathogenic agent through microscopy after Giesma staining of a peripheral blood smear.

- Detection of antibodies through plate agglutination or competition ELISA test.

Prophylaxis: 

Sanitary

Relies on combating the vectors through the use of acaricides

Vaccines: 

There is no effective and harmless vaccine


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